Pico de Orizaba, Mountain in Mexico. Elevation 18,491. First ascent was in 1848 by William F. Raynolds. This mountain is a stratovolcano and the highest mountain in Mexico, and the third highest in North America. It sits on the border between Veracruz and Puebla. The volcano is currently dormant but not extinct with the last eruption taking place during the 19th century. Pico de Orizaba supports the largest glacier in Mexico the Gran Glacier Norte. Orizaba has nine known glaciers. The climate of Orizaba varies greatly due to the change in elevation. Vegetation varies from tropical at the lower elevation to alpine forest in the higher elevations. Large amount of precipitation fall on Orizaba due to the trade winds pulling moisture off the Gulf of Mexico
The mountain was discovered by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd on an airplane flight, November 18, 1934, and named by him for Mabelle E. Sidley, the daughter of William Horlick who was a contributor to the 1933–35 Byrd Antarctic Expedition. Despite its lofty status, the volcano languishes in obscurity due to its extremely remote location. It is little known even in the mountaineering world compared to the far more famous Mount Erebus, the second highest Antarctic volcano which is located near the U.S. and New Zealand bases on Ross Island. The first recorded ascent of Mount Sidley was by New Zealander Bill Atkinson on January 11, 1990, whilst working in support of a USAP scientific field party
The original volcano on the site of Mount Giluwe formed roughly 650,000–800,000 years ago, probably as a stratovolcano of similar height to the current peak. Extensive Pleistocene glaciation eroded away much of the peak, leaving a series of volcanic plugs which form the present-day summits. A renewed episode of extensive volcanic eruptions formed the shield-like bulk of the current mountain between 220,000–300,000 year ago, and there is evidence that some of the lava erupted sub-glacially. During the last glaciations of the Ice Age, the upper slopes were covered by a massive ice cap over 150 m (500 ft) thick, from which only the main and east peaks protruded above the ice surface. At its maximum extent, the ice cap was over 15 km (9 mi) across and covered an area greater than 100 km² (40 mi²). Outlet glaciers extended down as low as 3,200–3,500 m (10,500–11,500 ft), leaving a variety of deposits including glacial till and moraines. Although the glaciers are now long gone, numerous cirques and U-shaped valleys remain visible. The present-day climate on the summit plateau above roughly 3,400 m (11,000 ft) is cold enough for nightly frosts and occasional snowfall. Giluwe has the distinction of being the highest volcano on the Australian continent, and is thus one of the Volcanic Seven Summits.
Ojos del Salado
Nevado Ojos del Salado is a massive stratovolcano in the Andes on the Argentina–Chile border and the highest active volcano in the world at 6,893 m (22,615 ft). It is also the second highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere and the highest in Chile. It is located about 600 km (370 mi) north of Aconcagua, the highest mountain in the Western Hemisphere at 6,962 m (22,841 ft).
Due to its location near the Atacama Desert, the mountain has very dry conditions with snow usually only remaining on the peak during winter, though heavy storms can cover the surrounding area with a few feet of snow even in summer. Despite the generally dry conditions, there is a permanent crater lake about 100 m (330 ft) in diameter at an elevation of 6,390 m (20,960 ft) on the eastern side of the mountain. This is most likely the highest lake of any kind in the world.
The ascent of Ojos Del Salado is mostly a hike except for the final section to the summit which is a difficult scramble that may require ropes. The first ascent was made in 1937 by Jan Alfred Szczepański and Justyn Wojsznis, members of a Polish expedition in the Andes.
Mount Elbrus is a dormant volcano located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia of Russia, near the border with Georgia. Mt. Elbrus's peak is the highest in the Caucasus Mountains and in Europe, and it is the tenth most prominent in the world. Elbrus has two summits, both of which are dormant volcanic domes. With its slightly taller west summit, the mountain stands at 5,642 meters (18,510 ft); the east summit is 5,621 meters (18,442 ft). The lower east summit was first ascended on 10 July 1829 (Julian calendar) by Khillar Khachirov, a Karachay guide for an Imperial Russian army scientific expedition led by General Emmanuel, and the higher (by about 20 m—70 ft) in 1874 by an English expedition led by F. Crauford Grove and including Frederick Gardner, Horace Walker, and the Swiss guide Peter Knubel of St. Niklaus in the canton Valais. Mount Elbrus was formed more than 2.5 million years ago. The volcano is currently considered inactive, as no eruptions have ever been recorded. Elbrus was active in the Holocene, but according to the Global Volcanism Program, the last eruption took place between 0 and 100 AD. Evidence of recent volcanism includes several lava flows on the mountain, which look fresh, and roughly 260 square kilometers (100 sq mi) of volcanic debris. The longest flow extends 24 kilometers (15 mi) down the northeast summit, indicative of a large eruption. There are other signs of activity on the volcano, including solfataric activity and hot springs. The western summit has a well-preserved volcanic crater about 250 meters (820 ft) in diameter.
Mount Damāvand a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the Middle East as well as the second highest volcano in Asia. It has a special place in Persian mythology and folklore. This peak is located in the middle of the Alborz range, adjacent to Varārū, Sesang, Gol-e Zard and Mīānrūd. The mountain is located near the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, in Damavand county, Tehran Province, 66 kilometers (41 miles) northeast of the city of Tehran. Mount Damavand first erupted in the Pleistocene almost 1.78 million years ago. After several known eruptions around 600,000 and 280,000 years ago, it finally erupted about 7300 years ago in the Holocene. Its steep cone is formed of ash and lava flows that are mainly made of trachyte, andesite and basalt. The Quaternary lavas are directly located on the Jurassic sediments. The volcano is crowned by a small crater with sulfuric deposits. There are also fumaroles, hot springs, and mineral deposits of travertine. Mount Damavand could be considered as a potentially active volcano, since there are fumaroles near the summit crater emitting sulfur, which were known to be active on July 6, 2007.
Kilimanjaro rises approximately 4,877 meters (16,001 ft) from its base in the plains near Moshi to its summit height of 5,895 meters (19,341 ft). Kilimanjaro is a large stratovolcano and is composed of three distinct volcanic cones: Kibo, the highest; Mawenzi at 5,149 meters (16,893 ft); and Shira, the shortest at 4,005 meters (13,140 ft). Uhuru Peak is the highest summit on Kibo's crater rim. Tanzania National Parks, a governmental agency, and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization list the height of Uhuru Peak as 5,895 m (19,341 ft). That height is based on a British Ordnance Survey in 1952. Since then, the height has been measured as 5,892 meters (19,331 ft) in 1999, 5,891 meters (19,327 ft) in 2008, and 5,888 meters (19,318 ft) in 2014. The interior of the volcanic edifice is poorly known, given the lack of large scale erosion that could have exposed the interiors of the volcano. The term Kilima-Njaro has generally been understood to mean the Mountain (Kilima) of Greatness (Njaro). This is probably as good a derivation as any other, though not improbably it may mean the "White" mountain, as I believe the term "Njaro" has in former times been used to denote whiteness, and though this application of the word is now obsolete on the coast, it is still heard among some of the interior tribes. Either translation is equally applicable.... By the Wa-chaga, the mountain is not known under one name, the two masses which form it being respectively named Kibo and Kimawenzi.